I Know What Risk Is, But How Do I Assess It?

The Risk Assessment Paradigm


References and Suggested Readings



ACS. 1998. Understanding Risk Analysis. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

Bernstein, P. L. 1996. Against the gods: The remarkable story of risk. Wiley, New York.

Cothern, C. R. [ed.]. 1996. Handbook of environmental risk decision making: values, perceptions, and ethics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

EC (1998). Guidelines on the Application of the Precautionary Principle. European Commission Directorate-General XXIV, 17 Oct 98, Brussels.

FACS (1995). Reporting on risk: A Journalist's Handbook on Environmental Risk Assessment. Foundation for American Communications, Pasadena, CA. http://www.facsnet.org/report_tools/guides_primers/risk/main.html

Laudan, L. 1997. Danger ahead: The risks you really face on life’s highway. Wiley, New York.

NRC (1983). Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

NRC (1996). Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Pool, R. 1997. Beyond engineering: How society shapes technology. Oxford University Press, London.

Porter, T. M. (1995). Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.

Powell, D. and Leiss, W. 1997. Mad cows and mother’s milk: The perils of poor risk communication. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal, Canada.

Power, M., and McCarty, L. S. (1998). A comparative analysis of environmental risk assessment/risk management frameworks. Environ. Sci. Technol. , 36, 224A-231A.

Molak, V. [ed.]. 1997. Fundamentals of risk analysis and risk management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.



Risk Perception and Communication


Alhakami, A. S., and P. Slovic 1994. A psychological study of the inverse relationship between perceived risk and perceived benefit. Risk Anal. 14: 1085-1096.

Bostrom, A., B. Fischhoff, and M. G. Morgan. 1992. Characterizing mental models of hazardous processes: a methodology and an application to radon. J. Soc. Iss. 48: 85-100.

Covello, V. T., P. M. Sandman, and P. Slovic, P. 1988. Risk communication, risk statistics, and risk comparisons: a manual for plant managers. Chem. Manufacturers Assoc., Washington, D.C.

Curtis, C. R. 1995. The public and pesticides: exploring the interface. Natl. Agric. Pestic. Impact Assess. Prog., U.S. Dept. Agric., 96 pp.

Gaskell G., Brauer, M. W., Durant, J., and Allum, N. C. (1999). Worlds apart? The reception of genetically modified foods in Europe and the U.S. Science, 295, 384-387.

Hoban, T. J. (1997). Consumer acceptance of biotechnology: An international perspective. Nature Biotechnology, 15, 232-234.

Krauss, N., T. Malmfors, and P. Slovic. 1992. Intuitive toxicology: expert and lay judgments of chemical risks. Risk Anal. 12: 215-232.

Laird, F. N. 1989. The decline of deference: the political context of risk communication. Risk Anal. 8: 543-549.

McDaniels, T. L., L. J. Axelrod, and P. Slovic. 1995. Characterizing perception of ecological risk. Risk Anal. 15: 575-588.

McDaniels, T. L., L. J. Axelrod, N. S. Cavanagh, and P. Slovic. 1997. Perception of ecological risk to water environments. Risk Anal. 17: 341-352.

National Research Council, Committee on Risk Perception and Communication. 1989. Improving risk communication. National Academy, Washington, DC., 332 pp.

Peterson, R. K. D. (2000). Public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology and pesticides: Recent understandings and implications for risk communication. Amer. Entomol., 46, 8-16.

Peterson, R. K. D., and L. G. Higley. 1993. Communicating pesticide risks. Am. Entomol. 39: 206-211.

Pike, D. R., F. Whitford, S. Kamble [eds.]. 1997. Pesticides and the bottom line. North Central Region: Pesticide Impact Assessment Program. Crop Science Special Report 1997-10, University of Illinois. 29 pp.

Potter, M. F, and R. T. Bessin. 1998. Pest control, pesticides, and the public: attitudes and implications. Am. Entomol. 44: 142-147.

Slovic, P. 1987. Perception of risk. Science 236: 280-285.

Tal, A. 1997. Assessing the environmental movement’s attitudes toward risk assessment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31: 470-476.

Van Ravenswaay, E. O. 1995. Public perceptions of agrichemicals. Counc. Agricul. Sci. Technol., Task Force Report 123, Ames, Iowa, 35 pp.

Zechendorf, B. 1994. What the public thinks about biotechnology. Bio/Technol. 12: 870-875.



Quantitative Risk Assessment


Cullen, A. C. and Frey, H. C. 1999. Probabilistic techniques in exposure assessment. Plenum, New York.

SETAC. 1994. Aquatic Dialogue Group: Pesticide risk assessment and mitigation. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL. 220 pp.

Vose, D. 1996. Quantitative risk analysis: A guide to Monte Carlo simulation modelling. Wiley, New York.



Biotechnology Risk Analysis


Lutman, P. J. 1999. Gene flow and agriculture: relevance for transgenic crops. Proceedings of a Symposium (University of Keele, Staffordshire, UK), Symposium Proceedings No. 72, British Crop Protection Council.

OECD (1995). Harmonization of Biotechnology Regulation: Analysis of Information Elements Used in the Assessment of Certain Products of Modern Biotechnology. OECD Environment Mono. 100. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris.

Tiedje, J. M., Colwell, R. K., Grossman, Y. L., Hodson, R. E., Lenski, R. E., Mack, R. N., and Regal, P. J. (1989). The planned introduction of genetically engineered organisms: Ecological consideration and recommendations. Ecology, 70,298-315.

Traynor, P. L. and J. H. Westwood [eds.]. 1999. Ecological effects of pest resistance genes in managed ecosystems. Proceedings of Workshop (Bethesda, MD), published by Information Systems For Biotechnology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

WHO (1991). Strategies for assessing the safety of foods produced by biotechnology. Report of a Joint FAO.WHO Consultation. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Wolt, J.D. and R.K.D. Peterson. 2000. Agricultural biotechnology and societal decision-making: the role of risk analysis. AgBioForum 3:291-298 (www.agbioforum.org).