Risk as Perception

References and Further Reading

Alhakami, A. S., and P. Slovic 1994. A psychological study of the inverse relationship between perceived risk and perceived benefit. Risk Anal. 14: 1085-1096.

Bostrom, A., B. Fischhoff, and M. G. Morgan. 1992. Characterizing mental models of hazardous processes: a methodology and an application to radon. J. Soc. Iss. 48: 85-100.

Boulter, D. 1997. Scientific and public perception of plant genetic manipulation—a critical review. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 16: 231-251.

Brown, D. J., and L. F. Schrader 1990. Cholesterol information and shell egg consumption. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 72: 548-555.

Chalfant, J. A., and J. M. Alston 1988. Accounting for changes in tastes. J. Political Econ. 96:391-410.

Cothern, C. R. 1996. An overview of environmental risk decision making: values, perceptions, and ethics, pp. 39-67. In C. R. Cothern [ed.], Handbook of environmental risk decision making: values, perceptions, and ethics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Covello, V. T., P. M. Sandman, and P. Slovic, P. 1988. Risk communication, risk statistics, and risk comparisons: a manual for plant managers. Chem. Manufacturers Assoc., Washington, D.C.

Curtis, C. R. 1995. The public and pesticides: exploring the interface. Natl. Agric. Pestic. Impact Assess. Prog., U.S. Dept. Agric., 96 pp.

Eom, Y. S. 1994. Pesticide residue risk and food safety valuation: a random utility approach. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 76: 760-771.

Fife-Shaw, C., and G. Rowe. 1996. Public perceptions of everyday food hazards: a psychometric approach. Risk Anal. 16: 487-500.

Fischhoff, B., P. Slovic, S. Lichenstein, S. S. Read, and B. Combs. 1978. How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Policy Sci. 9: 127-152.

Fisher, A. 1991. Risk communication challenges. Risk Anal. 11: 173-179.

Freudenburg, W. R. 1996. Strange chemistry: environmental risk conflicts in a world of science, values, and blind spots, pp. 11-36. In C. R. Cothern [ed.], Handbook for environmental risk decision making: values, perceptions, and ethics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Frewer, L. J., C. Howard, D. Hedderley, and R. Shepherd. 1997. The elaboration likelihood model and communication about food risks. Risk Anal. 17: 759-770.

Gaskell, G., M. W. Bauer, J. Durant, and N. C. Allum. 1999. Worlds apart? The reception of genetically modified foods in Europe and the U.S. Science 285: 384-387.

Hagedorn, C., and S. Allender-Hagedorn. 1997. Issues in agricultural and environmental biotechnology: identifying and comparing biotechnology issues from public opinion surveys, the popular press and technical/regulatory sources. Pub. Understanding  Sci. 6: 233-245.

Hakkinen, P. J., and C. J. Leep. 1996. Industry’s use of risk, values, perceptions, and ethics in decision making, pp.73-81. In C. R. Cothern [ed.], Handbook for environmental risk decision making: values, perceptions, and ethics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Hallman, W. K. 1996. Public perceptions of biotechnology: another look. Bio/Technol. 14: 35-38.

Hoban, T., E. Woodrum, R. Czaja. 1992. Public opposition to genetic engineering. Rural. Sociol. 57: 476-493.

Huang, C. L. 1993. Simultaneous-equation model for estimating consumer risk perceptions, attitudes, and willingness-to-pay for residue-free produce. J. Cons. Affairs 27: 377-396.

Kasperson, R. E. 1986. Six propositions on public participation and their relevance for risk communication. Risk Anal. 8: 275-281.

Kramer, C. S. 1990. Food safety: the consumer side of the environmental issue. South. J. Agric. Econ. 22: 33-40.

Krauss, N., T. Malmfors, and P. Slovic. 1992. Intuitive toxicology: expert and lay judgments of chemical risks. Risk Anal. 12: 215-232.

Laird, F. N. 1989. The decline of deference: the political context of risk communication. Risk Anal. 8: 543-549.

Lamb, C. G. 1993. The organic food market: A marketing perspective, paper presented to a New Zealand Marketing Educators’ Conference, Lincoln University.

Lujan, J. L., and L. Moreno. 1994. Public perception of biotechnology and genetic engineering in Spain: tendencies and ambivalence. Technol. and Soc. 16:335-355.

Maskill, C., and M. Harre. 1994. Scientific and public perceptions on the health risks of pesticide residues in food. Proc. Nutrition Soc. New Zeal. 19: 64-68.

McDaniels, T. L., L. J. Axelrod, and P. Slovic. 1995. Characterizing perception of ecological risk. Risk Anal. 15: 575-588.

McDaniels, T. L., L. J. Axelrod, N. S. Cavanagh, and P. Slovic. 1997. Perception of ecological risk to water environments. Risk Anal. 17: 341-352.

Morgan, M. G., B. Fischhoff, A. Bostrom, L. Lave, and C. Atman, C. 1992. Communicating risk to the public. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26: 2048-2056.

National Research Council, Committee on Risk Perception and Communication. 1989. Improving risk communication. National Academy, Washington, DC., 332 pp.

New Zealand National Research Bureau. 1990. Public perception of risk from chemicals. Wellington: National Research Bureau for Department of Health.

Norton, B. G. 1996. Ecological risk assessment: toward a broader analytic framework, pp. 155-175. In C. R. Cothern [ed.], Handbook of environmental risk decision making: values, perceptions, and ethics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Ott, S., C. Huang, and S. Misra. 1991. Consumers’ perceptions of risks from pesticide residues and food demand for certification of residue-free produce. In J. A. Casewell [ed.], Economics of food safety. Elsevier, New York.

Penner, K. P., C. S. Kramer, and G. L. Frantz. 1985. Consumer food safety perceptions. Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service, Manhattan, Kansas.

Peters, R. G., V. T. Covello, and D. B. McCallum. 1997. The determinants of trust and credibility in environmental risk communication: an empirical study. Risk Anal. 17: 43-54.

Peterson, R. K. D., and L. G. Higley. 1993. Communicating pesticide risks. Am. Entomol. 39: 206-211.

Pike, D. R., F. Whitford, S. Kamble [eds.]. 1997. Pesticides and the bottom line. North Central Region: Pesticide Impact Assessment Program. Crop Science Special Report 1997-10, University of Illinois. 29 pp.

Potter, M. F, and R. T. Bessin. 1998. Pest control, pesticides, and the public: attitudes and implications. Am. Entomol. 44: 142-147.

Raats, M. M., and R. Shepherd, R. 1996. Developing a subject-derived terminology to describe perceptions of chemicals in foods. Risk Anal. 16: 133-146.

Richardson-Harman, N., T. Phelps, P. Mooney, and R. Ball. 1998. Consumer perceptions of fruit production technologies. New Zealand J. Crop and Hort. Sci. 26: 181-192.

Sant’Ana, A., and S. Valle. 1995. Public perceptions of biotechnology: problems in the Third World. Tibtech 13: 126-127.

Shutz, H., and P. M. Wiedemann. 1998. Judgements of personal and environmental risks of consumer products—do they differ? Risk Anal. 18: 119-129.

Slovic, P. 1987. Perception of risk. Science 236: 280-285.

Slovic, P. 1990. The legitimacy of public perceptions of risk. J. Pestic. Reform 10: 13-15.

Slovic, P. 1997. Risk perception and trust, pp. 233-244. In V. Molak [ed.], Fundamentals of risk analysis and risk management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Smith, M., E. van Ravenswaay, and S. Thompson. 1988. Sales loss determination in food contamination incidents: an application to milk bans in Hawaii. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 70: 513-520.

Sparks, P., and R. Shepherd. 1994. Public perceptions of the potential hazards associated with food production and food consumption: an empirical study. Risk Anal. 14: 799-806.

Tal, A. 1997. Assessing the environmental movement’s attitudes toward risk assessment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31: 470-476.

Torgersen, H., and F. Seifert. 1997. Aversion preceding rejection: results of the Eurobarometer Survey 39.1 on biotechnology and genetic engineering in Austria. Pub. Understanding Sci. 6: 131-142.

Van Ravenswaay, E. O. 1995. Public perceptions of agrichemicals. Counc. Agricul. Sci. Technol., Task Force Report 123, Ames, Iowa, 35 pp.

Van Ravenswaay, E. O., and J. P. Hoehn. 1991. Willingness to pay for reducing pesticide residues in food: results of a nationwide survey. Staff paper No. 91-18. Dept. Agric. Econ., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI, USA.

Van Ravenswaay, E. O., J. Wohl, and J. P. Hoehn. 1992. Michigan consumers’ perceptions of pesticide residues in food. Staff paper No. 92-56. Dept.Agric. Econ., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI, USA.

Zechendorf, B. 1994. What the public thinks about biotechnology. Bio/Technol. 12: 870-875.